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12/28/09

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Revised [Conlang] Phonology

Xokatl Phonology (1.2)

 

Phoneme Inventory

 

Consonants

 

 

Bilabial

Labiodental

Alveolar

Velar

Plosive

p         b

 

t           d

k         g

Nasal

                m     

 

             n

           ŋ

Fricative

 

 

s     z

ʃ     ʒ

 

Lateral affricate

 

 

tɬ͡

 

Approximants

 

                    ʋ

             ɹ

 

Lateral Approx.

 

 

             l

 

           

 

 

Vowels

 

 

Front

Central

Back

Close

i

 

ɯ

Close-mid

e

 

o

Open-mid

 

 

 

Open

a

 

 

 

Diphthongs

 

/aw wa wi we wM wo ia ea ao io eo ai ei/

 

Allophony (per phoneme; X-Sampa notation)

Consonants

/p/ - in proximity to fricatives, [p_h], otherwise [p]

/b/ - devoices finally to [p]

/t/ - in proximity to fricatives, [t_h], otherwise [t]

/d/ - devoices finally to [t]

/k/ - in proximity to fricatives, [k_h], otherwise [k]

/g/ - devoices finally to [k]

/m/ - no change

/n/ - in certain cases, [N]. This is noted where it occurs

/N/ - no change

/s/ - voices finally to [z]

/z/ - palatalizes to [Z]

/S/ - no change

/Z/ - no change

/tK/ - no change

/r\/ - merges into [4] with /l/ at syllable borders

/l/ - merges into [4] with /r\/ at syllable borders

/v\/ - realized as [w] in diphthongs, no graphemic difference

Vowels

/i/ - Generally always realized as [i].

/e/ - Regardless of onset, if coda is non-nasal, or /N/ as coda, or isolated, [e]. With onset and either non-nasal coda or /N/ as coda, [E]. With onset and nasal (with exception of /N/) coda, [I].

/a/ - Generally always realized as [a].

/M/ - If there is no onset or coda, or a non-nasal onset or coda, [M]. If onset

is /m/ or /n/, and coda is any nasal, then [u]. Regardless of onset, and if coda is /r\/, then [7].

/o/ - If onset is /r\/, then [8]. If coda is /tK/, then [a]. In all other cases [o].

 

Phonotactics

Syllable Structure

Onset and Coda are both optional, Nucleus is always a vowel.

 

((C)(/r\/, /l/, /v\/))+V+(V)+((C)(/mp/, /nk/, /tK/, /N/)(C))

 

/N/ and /tK/ disallowed initially. If initial consonant isnít /m/, /n/, /s/, /z/, /r/, /l/, or /v\/, then /r/, /l/, or /v\/ can follow. Vowel, diphthong, or double vowel can follow (if /v\/ is part of the onset, the subsequent vowel is diphthongized with it). The coda can be either any consonant by itself, clusters /mp/, /nk/ (realized [Nk]), or plosives followed by fricatives (or vice versa).

 

Stress Rule

 

In monosyllabic words, there is no stress. Polysyllabic words in isolation feature stress in the final syllable, realized as a lengthened vowel (/:/). When in a longer phrase, only the final syllable of the phrase features this stress.

 

Romanized Orthography

 

Vowels

 

/i e a M o/

 

<i e a u o>

 

Consonants

 

/p b t d k g m n N s z S Z tK v\ r\ l/

 

<p b t d k g m n Ů s z x zh tl w r l>

 

 

 

 

Summary of revisions for version 1.2

 

1.     Re-revised diphthongs.

2.     Re-revised stress rule.

 

 

 

 



 

Summary of revisions

1.     Removal of /I/.

2.     Changed /u/ to /M/.

3.     Revised diphthongs.

4.     Revised allophony for both consonants, and extensively for vowels.

5.     Revised syllable structure.

6.     Revised stress rule.

7. Added Romanized Orthography.

 

 

 

 

 

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